Apple Rootstocks

Geneva® 11

Notable for its resistance to fireblight and crown rot. Precocious. Should always be supported. 

Geneva® 30

A precocious, semi-dwarf rootstock that produces a tree roughly 100% of Mazzard. Very precocious and productive. It has good virus resistance and no suckering problems. Well anchored, but may require support.


Geneva® 41 (USPP# 17139)

A newer release from Cornell University and Geneva Apple Rootstock Breeding Program. It produces trees that are similar to M9 with equal productivity. Branch angles tend to be naturally flatter and the selection is very winter hardy.

Geneva® 202

G.202 was selected mostly for its ability to root / propagate. It does not offer the crop density nor the replant tolerance. Its fruit size has been noted to be smaller than other rootstocks. It may be suitable for highly precocious scions with a tendency to produce oversize fruit. It is resistant to Fire Blight and Wooly Apple Aphid. It has high yield efficiency. It has a semi-dwarfing of seedling size to 30-40%.

Geneva® 210

G.210 has shown excellent replant tolerance so far. Eastern data show G.210 as a M.7 size canopy. The Wapato data, with many trees in the plots, strongly show it is not as big as G.30 which is ‘M.26 class’ in Washington State. Tree size is equivalent to large M.9 in Wapato with Gala as scion.

Geneva® 214

G.214 is one of the best replant performing rootstocks. It is very productive. Cold hardiness has not been proven though its siblings have been quite hardy. G.214 does not have commercial rootstock liner production yet. It is coming. Tree size is about large M.9.

Geneva 222

G.222 is a recent release; G.222 is similar to M.9 in vigor and precocity. It is fire blight, phytophthora and woolly aphid resistant. It is not as replant tolerant as other clones. It is equal to M.9 in productivity and orchard performance. It is rated as a ‘M.26 class’ rootstock in the east, but has not shown that level of vigor in Washington State.

Geneva® 814

G.814 was released in 2014. It has a more upright growth habit and better fruit size than G.214. G.814 is virus sensitive and will require certified budwood for budding or grafting.

Geneva® 890 

Geneva® 890 is a semidwarfing rootstock that is resistant to fire blight, woolly apple aphid, and crown rot. It has good cold hardiness and produces early. 


Geneva® 935 (USPP# 17063)Highly resistant to fire blight and Phytophthora and is about the same size of EMLA 26 but with the productivity of M9. It appears to have good graft union strength but given its heavy crop, tree support is recommended.

Geneva® 969

Geneva® 969 is a semidwarfing rootstock that is resistant to fire blight, woolly apple aphid, and crown rot. It has good cold hardiness and produces few suckers or burr knots. 


45% of standard apple seedling. Usually needs support. Okay in all but badly drained and light dry soils. Produces better quality fruit than Emla-7. Precocious. Not as hardy as Emla-7. Shallow rooted, subject to drought stress.

Parent rootstock is M-9. Trees with M-9 T337 rootstock perform very similarly to those grown on EMLA 9.  M-9 T337 induces early cropping with large fruit size and has the same influence as EMLA 9 on all scions. Some reports indicate that M-9 T337 may be slightly less vigorous than EMLA 9.


M-9/Pajam 2® (USPP#7715)
Trees grown on M-9 Pajam 2® will be similar to trees on EMLA 9 but with better rooting.  This rootstock will produce a tree about 35% of standard in most cases.


Bud 118 
(Budagovsky 118) Similar in size to EMLA 106 and 111 or approx. 95% of seedling. Very winter hardy and adaptable to a wide range of soils. Resistant to collar rot. Reported to be as precocious as EMLA 106 and is recommended for production in cold climates as well as under replant conditions

Bud 10

Dwarfting rootstock for apple trees. Cold hardy, yield efficient, Fireblight tolerant, with good root anchorage and stress tolerance. Production is similar to M-9

Quality Orchard Trees Since 1951

Sierra Gold Nurseries

5320 Garden Highway, Yuba City, CA 95991 Main (530) 674-1145

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